Start Carbon dating not useful artifacts made metal

Carbon dating not useful artifacts made metal

The size of these structures is not available in the archaeological investigations but a modern reconstruction of a bloomery furnace had internal dimensions of 300 mm dia. In the bloomery process a hearth was constructed and in it was placed multiple layers of charcoal and iron ore until a mound was produced.

The hot spongy iron was beaten by hammer to produce an iron billet or iron products.

The reactions taking place during the smelting in the bloomery process are described here.

More than 4,000 years ago, people discovered meteoric iron.

But it was another 2,000 years before the production of iron from mined iron ore began.

For the next 3000 years, techniques for the production of iron did not significantly change with iron sponge produced by C reduction of the oxides and iron products made by pounding the sponge.

Fig 1 Iron smelting process depicted in Egyptian tomb Iron oxide ores are present in many areas of the planet earth.

When their empire collapsed around 1200 BCE, the various tribes took the knowledge of iron making with them, spreading it across Europe and Asia.

The knowledge of ironworking in all of Europe and Western Asia is ultimately traced to this source.

Ancient writings in both China and India refer to iron smelting.

Other artifacts include swords, axes, sickles and hoes.

The slag was of two varieties, being partly of the open porous nature of bog-ore dross, and partly compact, hard, and very infusible, as obtained from red iron ore.